Mechanisation of the printing processes (1851–1900)
Thanks to the stormy development of the press and readership, printing houses were installing fast machines, and in Kraków, Żegota Wywiałkowski published a textbook Wartkotłocznie (1858) in the Printing House of "Czas" (Time). At the end of the 19th century, Foucher and Küstermann system type casting machines (producing 30-50 thousand types a day) were installed in the Orgelbrand and Ungra foundries. From 1878, the newspaper "Kurier Warszawski" was printed on a modern rotary press. In 1899, the first machine for automatic typesetting, the so-called “monolina”, was purchased for the National Printing house in Kraków.