From craft to industry (1801–1850)

Printing was developing rapidly in all three partitions of Poland. Type foundries were established in Warsaw (Dąbrowski, Benecke, Glücksberg, Gissernia Skarbowa), as well as in Lviv and Kraków. The first lithographic printing houses were also established (Siestrzyński, Chodkiewicz). Natan Glücksberg's participation in the Warsaw Exhibition of Fine Arts in 1821 and his efforts to gain acceptance among artists is the first attempt to ennoble printing – typography as a field of artistic creativity. In 1833, the first high-speed machine in the country was put into operation at the printing house of Bank Polski in Warsaw. Glücksberg published Ząbkowski's Teorya sztuki drukarskiej (1832, ‘Theory of printing art’), and a few years later Samuel Orgelbrand established a famous publishing and printing company. In Krakow, Stanisław Gieszkowski printed the first volume of Wiszniewski's Historia literatury polskiej (1840, ‘Polish literature history’).